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Massive Retaliation: A Declassified Documentary History of

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The expected effect of the deterrent achieves an easy clarity because wide margins of error in estimates of probable damage do not matter. Their use by rogue states and non-state groups will pose a first-order challenge to the United States two decades from now. We continually witness bizarre meteorological occurrences as powerful electromagnetic devices manipulate both the jet stream and individual storm fronts to create artificial weather and climatic conditions. I found this information on the “ Guardian” which is a news paper publication in the UK.

Hibakusha: Survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

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The neocons and their liberal-hawk sidekicks only talk about stopping the “barbarism” of the Syrian government and its Russian allies as they try to finally wipe out Al Qaeda’s jihadists and their “moderate” allies holed up in eastern Aleppo. The military realities made for a precarious diplomatic situation. Both Saddam Hussein and the al Queda networks have long been nourished with U. But even those who speak in these terms seem to understand that this is fantasy -- that once started, a nuclear exchange would be almost impossible to limit or contain. "The only move that you have control over is your first move; you have no control over the nth move in a nuclear exchange," said Carnegie's Tellis.

Nuclear Weapons and Law: (Contributions in Legal Studies)

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Even in the decades before fission weapons, there had been speculation about the possibility for human beings to end all life on the planet, either by accident or purposeful maliciousness—but technology had not provided the capacity for such action. One wonders why their civil and military leaders should be less inter�ested in avoiding self-destruction than leaders of other states have been. Kissinger implies that planning only started in September and October (rather than as early as April).

Nuclear Fallout from the Nevada Test Site 1951-1970 in

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Government troops had to quickly move everything of value. On this assumption, then, that the choice posed by a threatened nuclear attack would be either complete destruction or surrender, only the second may be morally vindicated.” [ix] While some authorities prohibit the use of nuclear weapons that have the power to cause large-scale destruction, questions still arise about whether countries are allowed to possess the weapons even if they do not ever plan on using them.

Proliferation, Plutonium and Policy: Institutional and

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Because countries heavily armed with strategic nuclear weapons can carry war to its ultimate intensity, the control of force, in wartime as in peace�time, becomes the primary objective. South Africa built seven nuclear weapons using this design, but verifiably dismantled them in the 1990s. However, given the extent to which nuclear weapons were thoroughly integrated into the training and doctrine of U. The Federation of American Scientists has made an estimate of the size of each country's nuclear arsenal using the best information available. more...

The Nuclear Crisis: The Arms Race, Cold War Anxiety, and the

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The president carries authentication codes to assure recipients that the source of any nuclear orders is actually the Commander in Chief. Departments of Defense and State jointly argued that using, and even making first use of, nuclear weapons does not violate any treaty regarding human rights or the environment. I am saying that the amount of damage they inflict falls off very rapidly with increasing range. Those opposing the legality of these weapons include a number of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), such as the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), which expressed reservations, as well as some governments.

Bridge of Spies

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Given the unique destructive power of nuclear weapons, an asymmetry of this kind should be unacceptable to American military planners. As a result, states design their nuclear forces in such a way that a sufficient number of weapons would remain to respond with a devastating second strike. Regrettably the current Administration failed to take the opportunity to bring this issue to the United Nations two years ago or immediately after when we had such unity of spirit with our allies.

The Gulf Military Balance: The Missile and Nuclear

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S. and USSR conducted hundreds of nuclear tests, including the Desert Rock exercises at the Nevada Test Site, USA, pictured above during the Korean War. Starting in 1962, about 300 of the 10,000-pound, minivan-size bombs were made, meant to be carried on bombers kept on 24-hour alert at the height of U. The increased effort of one of the great powers prompts the other to try harder, and the effects become reciprocating causes.

The Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962: Comparative

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The regional perspective is complicated by cross-regional links such as the sale of relevant systems and technologies by China to Pakistan and Iran, by North Korea and Russia to Iran, by Russia to China, and by Pakistan to Libya. China uses any remaining nuclear weapons against Russia, the U. Written by a physicist and weapons designer, this 1987 article explores the possibility of a third-generation of nuclear weapons that would selectively produce certain types of energy and allow for greater precision in hitting targets.

Nuclear Weapons, Policies, and the Test Ban Issue (Praeger

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It was in fact Vault-Tec 's executive of the vaults. The fact that both Truman and Eisenhower had stakes in making their arguments doesn’t mean that their views of history should just be discounted, but neither does their proximity to the event mean their views should get elevated epistemic status (they aren’t necessarily true — and we don’t have to get into whether they were misremembered, were being misleading, etc.). Needless to say, the September 11 2001 terrorist attacks have served to galvanize public opinion, particularly in the US, in support of the pre-emptive war doctrine.